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Researchers uncover earliest tobacco use in the Pacific Northwest

UC Davis researchers uncover earliest tobacco use in the Pacific Northwest
The earliest known usage of tobacco in the Pacific Northwest was smoked using a pipe similar to this one, according to Shannon Tushingham, a UC Davis archaeology research associate. Credit: Shannon Tushingham

(Phys.org)—Native American hunter-gatherers living more than a thousand years ago in what is now northwestern California ate salmon, acorns and other foods, and now we know they also smoked tobacco—the earliest known usage in the Pacific Northwest, according to a new University of California, Davis, study.

"The study demonstrates that was part of the northwestern California culture very early ... shortly after the earliest documented Pacific Northwest Coast plank house villages," said the study, published in the .

Testing organic residues extracted from pipes, researchers from the UC Davis Department of Anthropology and the Fiehn Metabolomics Laboratory of the UC Davis Genome Center confirmed was smoked, and likely grown in the region, by at least A.D. 860.

Perhaps more importantly, the researchers say that additional studies may help them better understand the origins of and the human management, geographic range extension and cultivation of tobacco. Indeed, as part of a second study, the authors have recently detected nicotine in ancient pipes from an 800-year-old site in the modern city of Pleasanton, Calif.

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Stripping out price, volumes of Chinese imports in October fell a more modest 2.6 per cent from a year earlier, according to estimates from Oxford Economics.
排行榜上前7所院校还是老面孔。澳大利亚新南威尔士大学商学院(UNSW Business School of Australia)澳大利亚管理研究生院(AGSM)首次上榜,排在第八位。
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抵达太阳系深处的人类智慧。
居民消费价格上涨2%;

Prior to this recent testing, which used sensitive gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, researchers were unsure of the historical use of tobacco on the Coast. It was unclear, for example, whether European traders had brought tobacco to the area much later, or if some other plant had been smoked in the pipes, Tushingham said.

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US president Donald Trump’s zero-sum, Art-of-the-Deal approach to negotiation will give comfort to old-fashioned incumbents. I am hoping 2018 will provide an opportunity for positive, problem-solving new leaders to emerge. But change could stall if business chiefs, disheartened by the poor quality of political leadership, turn inwards instead.
Yes. In 2018 President Trump will deliver on some of his protectionist campaign rhetoric by taking punitive actions against China. The most likely triggers for action will be official reports that the Trump administration has commissioned into China’s alleged theft of intellectual property, and its subsidised production of steel and aluminium. The president, spurred on by his trade team, is likely to order retaliatory measures, including tariffs. Whether that marks the first shot in a trade war will depend on how China reacts. A Chinese decision to impose retaliatory tariffs, or to take America to the World Trade Organization, will signal the opening of hostilities.
裘德韦伯(Jude Webber)
交易员们纷纷退出:“不可持续趋势苟延残喘的时间可以远超多数人的预期,但时候一到,在周期的顶点,它们还是会结束。”他们分析了20多种周期,“差不多无一意外地预示未来数月、数年将发生地壳运动”。
即使从未见过人微笑,盲人也会微笑。
“能自己当老板,经营自己的公司,我感到很骄傲,”凯蒂在刚过去的夏天对福布斯100位名人封面故事说,“我是一名企业家,并且没有刻意回避这一身份。事实上,我很珍惜自己当老板的体验。”
对于购房者,也不都是坏消息:房价明年(2015年——译注)仍将上涨,但步伐可能会从飙涨趋于平缓。“房价不会一味地陡然上涨,”柯克兰集团(Corcoran)的首席执行官帕梅拉·利伯曼(Pamela Liebman)说,“买家都有点疲劳了。”

银行、基金公司和保险公司从内地涌向香港,收购这里的高端写字楼,导致香港政府宣布将释放更多土地,在火爆的城市中心地段进行商业再开发。
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“这不是可持续的增长,因为它们并未被租出去,当地市场的喊价者们并不会购买。”
While on the nonsurgical front, Botox and laser hair removal remain firm favourites.
“When I started in this business, Brooklyn was the alternative. Now it is a choice,” said Diane M. Ramirez, the chief executive of Halstead Property. “I see Queens becoming that way. The Bronx is not that far down the line.”
“有个人给老板发了个短信,说他要离职了。”
宾夕法尼亚州立大学的气候科学家迈克尔·E·曼恩(Michael E. Mann)在电子邮件中说,“如果不是由于燃烧化石燃料所产生的、导致地球变暖的气体排放越来越多的原因,在上千年史无前例的几十年较暖期间、创纪录地变暖的十年中,看到变暖的又一个记录年度,是非常不可能的。”
Coca-Cola cut its sales forecast for this year as it struggles with a consumer slowdown in China, sending the drinks group’s shares down more than 3 per cent.

伦敦博蒙特·内森顾问公司(Beaumont Nathan)的联合创始人雨果·内森(Hugo Nathan)说:“新投资者对早期绘画大师的作品有兴趣,不过他们想要的是杜维恩(Duveen)卖给强盗大亨们的作品。他们想要名作。”他指的是英国艺术交易商约瑟夫·杜维恩(Joseph Duveen),他把很多伟大的艺术品带去了美国。
The region boasts hundreds of miles of beaches and lakeshore, some of the country's oldest forests and waterfalls. Best of all, it offers reasonable travel costs and sees far fewer travelers than big cities.
Jon Copestake, editor of the EIU Worldwide Cost of Living Index, said one of the most notable changes was the rising costs in Australia, with Sydney third in the list and Melbourne fifth. Sandwiched between them was Oslo in Norway.
值得注意的是,本年度传播假消息之首的网站域名当属“abcnews.com.co.” 在十一月的一次Verge的采访中,伊利诺伊州大学信息科学学院的Nicole A. Cooke教授引用了一个假新闻网站上的消息,这个假新闻网站使用的是危险和普遍的策略,即域名和真网站看上去只有微小的区别。他们让消息源从第一眼看上去具备真实性。管理abcnews.com.co的人告诉华盛顿邮报,他相信他的网站在特朗普大选期间充当了一个重要的因素。

The study is available online.


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关于7月9日的枪击案,调查人员已逮捕两名年轻人,其中一名18岁。

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Citation: Researchers uncover earliest tobacco use in the Pacific Northwest (2013, March 1) retrieved 18 November 2020 from https://phys.org/news/2013-03-uncover-earliest-tobacco-pacific-northwest.html
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